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The Strength and Honor Cocktail

The Strength and Honor Cocktail

The Strength and Honor Cocktail at Royalton.

We can't even begin to start toasting all the tremendous athletes and their medals in the London Olympic Games: swimmer Missy Franklin, gymnast Jordyn Weiber, gymnast Gabby Douglas, the list goes on and on. While we know that some of these athletes are well underage, there's no shame in toasting an Olympic-themed drink to them. Thanks to the Forty Four at Royalton in New York City, the appropriately named Strength and Honor cocktail uses gin and homemade honey syrup.

Ingredients

  • 1 1/2 Ounce London dry gin
  • 1/2 Ounce homemade honey syrup
  • 1/2 Ounce fresh lemon juice
  • 1 egg white

Servings1

Calories Per Serving150

Folate equivalent (total)4µg1%


The Strength and Honor Cocktail - Recipes

New International Version
She is clothed with strength and dignity she can laugh at the days to come.

New Living Translation
She is clothed with strength and dignity, and she laughs without fear of the future.

English Standard Version
Strength and dignity are her clothing, and she laughs at the time to come.

Berean Study Bible
Strength and honor are her clothing, and she can laugh at the days to come.

King James Bible
Strength and honour are her clothing and she shall rejoice in time to come.

New King James Version
Strength and honor are her clothing She shall rejoice in time to come.

New American Standard Bible
Strength and dignity are her clothing, And she smiles at the future.

NASB 1995
Strength and dignity are her clothing, And she smiles at the future.

NASB 1977
Strength and dignity are her clothing, And she smiles at the future.

Amplified Bible
Strength and dignity are her clothing and her position is strong and secure And she smiles at the future [knowing that she and her family are prepared].

Christian Standard Bible
Strength and honor are her clothing, and she can laugh at the time to come.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
Strength and honor are her clothing, and she can laugh at the time to come.

American Standard Version
Strength and dignity are her clothing And she laugheth at the time to come.

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
Strength and excellence are her clothing and she will rejoice in the last day.

Brenton Septuagint Translation
She puts on strength and honour and rejoices in the last days.

Contemporary English Version
She is strong and graceful, as well as cheerful about the future.

Douay-Rheims Bible
Strength and beauty are her clothing, and she shall laugh in the latter day.

English Revised Version
Strength and dignity are her clothing and she laugheth at the time to come.

Good News Translation
She is strong and respected and not afraid of the future.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
She dresses with strength and nobility, and she smiles at the future.

International Standard Version
Strength and dignity are her garments she smiles about the future.

JPS Tanakh 1917
Strength and dignity are her clothing And she laugheth at the time to come.

Literal Standard Version
Strength and honor [are] her clothing, "" And she rejoices at a latter day.

NET Bible
She is clothed with strength and honor, and she can laugh at the time to come.

New Heart English Bible
Strength and dignity are her clothing. She laughs at the time to come.

World English Bible
Strength and dignity are her clothing. She laughs at the time to come.

Young's Literal Translation
Strength and honour are her clothing, And she rejoiceth at a latter day.

1 Timothy 2:9
Likewise, I want the women to adorn themselves with respectable apparel, with modesty, and with self-control, not with braided hair or gold or pearls or expensive clothes,

1 Timothy 2:10
but with good deeds, as is proper for women who profess to worship God.

Strength and honor are her clothing and she shall rejoice in time to come.

Job 29:14 I put on righteousness, and it clothed me: my judgment was as a robe and a diadem.

Job 40:10 Deck thyself now with majesty and excellency and array thyself with glory and beauty.

Psalm 132:9,16 Let thy priests be clothed with righteousness and let thy saints shout for joy…

Psalm 97:11,12 Light is sown for the righteous, and gladness for the upright in heart…

Isaiah 65:13,14 Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD, Behold, my servants shall eat, but ye shall be hungry: behold, my servants shall drink, but ye shall be thirsty: behold, my servants shall rejoice, but ye shall be ashamed: …

Matthew 25:20,21 And so he that had received five talents came and brought other five talents, saying, Lord, thou deliveredst unto me five talents: behold, I have gained beside them five talents more…

And she shall rejoice in time to come.-- Rather, smiles at the coming day does not fear the future.

Verse 25. - AYIN. Strength and honour are her clothing (ver. 17) ἰσχὺν καὶ εὐπρέπειαν , Septuagint. She is invested with a moral force and dignity which arm her against care and worry the power of a righteous purpose and strong will reveals itself in her carriage and demeanour. And thus equipped, she shall rejoice in time to come or, she laugheth (Job 5:22 Job 39:7) at the future (Isaiah 30:8). She is not disquieted by any fear of what may happen, knowing in whom she trusts, and having done her duty to the utmost of her ability. The Greek and Latin versions seem to take the expression as referring to the day of death thus the Vulgate, Ridebit in die novissimo Septuagint, "She rejoices in the last days ( ἐν ἡμέραις ἐσχάταις ) ." But it is best interpreted as above. The true servant of God is not afraid of any evil tidings, his heart being fixed, trusting in the Lord (Psalm 112:7).


50 drinks & toasts&hellip to help make you the perfect host (1968)

&ldquoToasting&rdquo &ndash How it began

The custom of toasting, first known as drinking &ldquohealths,&rdquo began hundreds of years BC, when ancient warriors offered drinks to pagan gods.

At banquets, early Greeks drank to every god on Olympus. Romans added a pledge to Caesar, and downed a cup for each letter in his name. Norsemen offered a minne to Odin and Thor, adding other cups to love, memories, friends.

Later on, merrymakers drank to each other&rsquos well-being. Our own word &ldquohealth&rdquo is from the Norse greeting Heil, and Anglo-Saxons pledged friends with Waes Hael, or &ldquobe thou well!&rdquo Pledging health in those cutthroat days was very real. A man was particularly vulnerable to unfriendly swords while drinking.

Thus a kinsman, in &ldquopledging health,&rdquo swore to defend him. Centuries later, the singing of robust songs and chug-a-lugging became part of drinking &ldquohealths.&rdquo This custom fell into disfavor, was even outlawed (England, 1649).

But &ldquodrinks of honor&rdquo survived. They saluted the ladies (the first drinks called toasts), wealth, love, success.

Today a toast may be a casual &ldquohere&rsquos to you&rdquo or a special tribute for a special occasion. But the greatest honor to a friend is the expertly made drink itself.

This helpful guide shows you how you can mix and improve great drinks to toast any celebration.


Strength and Honor

As Honor A. P. (Honor Code) was gearing up for his career debut at Del Mar last summer, owner Lee Searing had some fun with trainer John Shirreffs while inquiring about a potential rider for his stunning $850,000 Fasig-Tipton Saratoga yearling acquisition.

“I asked John, it wasn't like I didn't know, and said, 'Who are you going to be putting on this big horse,'” Searing said of the veteran conditioner widely known for playing his cards close to his vest.

“He said, 'Well, I don't know Lee.' As we got closer and knew when his first race was going to be, I said to him, 'You know Johnny, you could at least tell me now.' He said, 'Well, I got to tell you, his last two works have been with Mike and he's excited about this horse. I got to not let Mike get too excited about this horse.'”

Mike, of course, is Hall of Famer Mike Smith, the long-time, go-to rider for Shirreffs. The two most notably partnered on the legendary career of 2010 Horse of the Year Zenyatta (Street Cry ) as well as 2005 GI Kentucky Derby upsetter Giacomo (Holy Bull).

“Mike came up to me and said, 'This is quite a horse,'” Searing said. “We knew that we had something from the beginning.”

Honor A.P. first caught the eye as a 2-year-old rallying smartly from last of 10 and leveling off beautifully in the stretch to round out the exacta going six furlongs on debut at Del Mar Aug. 17. He was sent straight to the front by Smith and never looked back, running a field of nine off their feet to graduate in style when stretched to a two-turn mile at Santa Anita at second asking Oct. 13.

After missing some time with a foot bruise, Honor A.P. launched his sophomore season belatedly with a valiant second behind the unbeaten Bob Baffert-trained Authentic (Into Mischief) in the GII San Felipe S. Mar. 7. The blaze-faced dark bay began to wind up from fourth with a flashy move on the far turn and made a bold bid at Authentic as they straightened for home, but the pacesetter had plenty left in the tank and drew off to win by 2 1/4 lengths.

“Everybody says he's a lot like A.P. Indy,” Searing said of the grandson of the late leading sire and 1992 Horse of the Year. “He's a ridgling and he's got these great looks. I couldn't pass up naming him after a combination of his dad Honor Code and Lane's End foundation sire A.P. Indy. He puts his head down and looks like he could run all day. He does it so easy.”

A highly anticipated rematch is on the horizon with the aforementioned San Felipe winner in the rescheduled GI Santa Anita Derby, currently slated for June 6 pending final approval from the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health. Santa Anita last raced Mar. 22 due to the coronavirus outbreak.

Searing is well aware of the stiff competition out there on the GI Kentucky Derby trail, especially in his own backyard, after Baffert's sweep of last weekend's split-division GI Arkansas Derby at Oaklawn Park with unbeaten 'TDN Rising Stars' Charlatan (Speightstown) and Nadal (Blame).

“We're sitting here kind of like a single destroyer in the midst of the Baffert Army fleet,” Searing said with a laugh. “Baffert's got some great horses and he's a great trainer, but this horse just looks like he's ready to take on the challenge.”

Searing continued, “John is developing him like we've got a really good horse. He could go a distance of ground and his last race, trying to chase Authentic, wasn't the easiest thing to do. He made the perfect move–the one we all wanted to see–but he didn't catch him. He didn't lean on him and we're just really happy with the way he ran. We will be ready, God willing, for this race. We haven't set him down yet.”

Honor A.P. was the most expensive of 61 yearlings to switch hands from the first crop of promising young sire Honor Code. Bred in Kentucky by George Krikorian, he is out of the Shirreffs-trained two-time Grade I heroine Hollywood Story (Wild Rush).

The 19-year-old has also produced the stakes winner Miss Hollywood (Malibu Moon) the multiple graded-placed Hollywood Star (Malibu Moon) and multiple stakes-placed Hoorayforhollywood (Storm Cat).

Honor A.P.'s year-older half-sister by Giant's Causeway brought $875,000 from Searing at the 2017 Keeneland September Yearling sale. Now named Hollywood Girl, she was a promising debut winner on the Santa Anita lawn last June and is currently on the comeback trail after posting a pair of subsequent off-the-board finishes at Del Mar last summer.

“[Buying] Honor A.P. goes back to the year before when [bloodstock agent] David Ingordo called me–he knows George Krikorian really well–and said, 'Lee, there's this filly in the sale, she's absolutely gorgeous and we've got to buy her,'” Searing said. “We ended up buying her and she's a maiden winner now. But we backed off her and she's doing unbelievable.”

Searing continued, “So, when the next year came and we knew [Honor A.P.] was going into the sale, we knew we'd have to bid a lot of money–he's a beautiful horse, too. The exercise riders and grooms out here call him 'the chickmeister.' I was just really excited to buy him.”

Carrying the initials of Lee and Susan Searing's three adult children–Christina, Richard and Katherine–C R K Stable LLC currently boasts approximately 25-plus horses in training in Southern California split between Shirreffs and Peter Eurton. The Searings, now proud grandparents, also have runners with Ingordo's wife, trainer Cherie DeVaux.

“I've kind of stepped it up over the last three to four years,” the 72-year-old said of his stable. “I try to buy six to eight yearlings a year and I'm keeping some broodmares, too. We're going to end up racing and also selling some of the offspring. And it's all because of David Ingordo–he really does a great job. I'm trying to play the game at the highest level.”

Searing will be doing just that on the aforementioned, loaded Santa Anita Derby June 6 program at the Great Race Place also with GII San Pasqual S. and GIII Native Diver S. winner Midcourt (Midnight Lute) in the GI Gold Cup. The late-blooming and lightly raced 5-year-old gelding, a $450,000 KEESEP yearling buy, was third as the 3-5 favorite in the GI Santa Anita H. most recently Mar. 7.

“Midcourt is just a perfect example of somebody taking their time and patience to turn a horse completely around,” Searing said of the dark bay who sat out his entire 3-year-old season.

“John's such a great horsemen–my wife says he's as close to a horse whisperer as you can get. It's fun to watch a horse that didn't even want to run or train suddenly turn it all around.”

Searing added, “I'm looking forward to these big races with my horses. We're excited.”

Searing is the CEO of Searing Industries, a California- and Wyoming-based, family-run business with more than 200 employees specializing in manufacturing steel-tubing products. He began attending the races with his father as an 8-year-old and it didn't take long for the family to make a splash into horse ownership.

“We bought our first horse when I was 12, and I owned my first horse–a $2,000 claimer at Caliente with my father–when I was 18,” Searing said. “His name was Secret Touch and his name carries on with a horse I own now.”

He continued, “I started my own business back in 1985 and we got out of racing for about 10 years while we started the company. The company has done really well and has allowed me to buy some really nice horses. When you go back 54 years and you look at all these horses you've owned–including having fun with a lot of cheap horses–I'm going to continue to enjoy horse racing over the years to come.”

Standouts to carry the purple and gold of C R K Stable–Searing's silks pay homage to the Los Angles Lakers and the gone-too-soon legendary all-star Kobe Bryant–are headed by MGISW Switch (Quiet American), who also hit the board three times in the GI Breeders' Cup Filly & Mare Sprint. The $150,000 KEESEP yearling earned more than $1.4 million on the racetrack and later brought $4.3 million from Moyglare Stud Farm at the 2012 Fasig-Tipton November sale.

C R K has also campaigned 2004 G1 Dubai Golden Shaheen winner Our New Recruit (Alphabet Soup) four-time graded winner and millionaire Kobe's Back (Flatter), who currently stands at Bonita Farm in Maryland MGSW & MGISP Kettle Corn (Candy Ride ) and Candy Boy (Candy Ride ), winner of the 2014 GII Robert B. Lewis S. and third-place finisher of the Santa Anita Derby. The latter gave the Searing family their first taste of Louisville on the first Saturday in May.

“I just want to see my horses again more than anything,” Searing concluded. “I'm not the guy that says, 'It's the Derby or nothing.' I'm the guy that just loves horse racing.”


Manly Honor Part V: Honor in the American South

Welcome back to our series on manly honor. Today we tackle Southern honor in the 19 th century. Now, be prepared: this is and will be the longest post in the series by far. The complexity of traditional honor and its various cultural manifestations cannot possibly be underestimated, nor can the difficulty in distilling these complexities into an accessible, coherent narrative. We have done our best with that task so far, and here as well however, understanding Southern honor requires a more in-depth exploration. We could have just sketched out the very basics, but truly grasping those basics necessitates an understanding of the framework which underlies them. Also, as we shall see, because the South’s culture of honor still influences that region today, it’s a good subject to become knowledgeable about if you want to understand the country. Plus, it’s just really interesting!

We didn’t set out to do it, but I’m proud of the fact that this series has turned into a resource unlike any other that is out there. I don’t imagine there’s a huge audience among blog readers for 7,000-word posts about Southern honor, but those who are interested in the subject will hopefully really dig it, and anyone who girds up his loins and reads the whole thing will be rewarded.

Southern Honor: An Introduction

In our last post about the history of honor, we took a look at how honor manifested itself in the American North around the time of the Civil War. Yet when most folks think about honor in the States, both then and now, what first comes to mind is invariably the South.

There’s a reason for that. While honor in the North evolved during the 19 th century away from the ideals of primal honor and towards a private, personal quality synonymous with “integrity,” the South held onto the tenets of traditional honor for a much longer period of time.

Unlike the Northern code of honor, which emphasized emotional restraint, moral piety, and economic success, the Southern honor code in many ways paralleled the medieval honor code of Europe — combining the reflexive, violent honor of primitive man with the public virtue and chivalry of knights.

The code of honor for Southern men required having: 1) a reputation for honesty and integrity, 2) a reputation for martial courage and strength, 3) self-sufficiency and “mastery,” defined as patriarchal dominion over a household of dependents (wife/children/slaves), and 4) a willingness to use violence to defend any perceived slight to his reputation as a man of integrity, strength, and courage, as well as any threats to his independence and kin. Just as in medieval times, “might made right” in the American South. If a man could physically dominate or kill someone who accused him of dishonesty, that man maintained his reputation as a man of integrity (even if the accusations were in fact true).

Anthropologists and social psychologists believe this form of classical honor survived and thrived in the American South and died in the North because of cultural differences between their respective early settlers, as well as the North’s and South’s divergent economies.

Herding, the Scotch-Iris h, and the South’s Culture of Honor

To understand why a more primal and violent culture of honor took root in the American South, it helps to understand the cultural background of its early settlers. While the northern United States was settled primarily by farmers from more established European countries like the Netherlands, Germany, and especially England (particularly from areas around London), the southern United States was settled primarily by herdsmen from the more rural and undomesticated parts of the British Isles. These two occupations — farming and herding — produced cultures with starkly different notions of honor.

Some researchers argue that herding societies tend to produce cultures of honor that emphasize courage, strength, and violence. Unlike crops, animal herds are much more vulnerable to theft. A herdsman could lose his entire fortune in one overnight raid. Consequently, martial valor and strength and the willingness to use violence to protect his herd became useful assets to an ancient herdsman. What’s more, a reputation for these martial attributes served as a deterrent to would-be thieves. It’s telling that many of history’s most ferocious warrior societies had pastoral economies. The ancient Hittites, the ancient Hebrews, and the ancient Celts are just a few examples of these warrior/herder societies.

As it happened, the Scotch-Irish settlers that poured into the Southern colonies from the late 17 th century through the antebellum period were genetic and cultural descendants of the war-like and pastoral Celts. Hailing from Scotland, Ireland, Wales, Cornwall, and the English Uplands, these Scotch-Irish peoples made up perhaps half of the South’s population by 1860 (in contrast, three-quarters of New Englanders, up until the massive influx of Irish immigrants in the 1840s, were English in origin). As the Celtic-herdsmen theory goes (and it is not without its critics), their influence on Southern culture was even larger than their numbers. These rough and scrappy Scotch-Irish immigrants not only brought with them their ancestors’ penchant for herding, but also imported their love of whiskey, music, leisure, gambling, hunting, and…their warrior-bred, primal code of honor. Even as the South became an agricultural powerhouse, the vast majority of white Southerners – from big plantation owners to the landless — continued to raise hogs and livestock. Whether a man spent most his time working a farm or herding his animals, the pastoral culture of honor, with its emphasis on courage, strength, and violence — characterized by an aggressive stance towards the world and a wariness towards outsiders who might want to take what was his — remained (and as we will see later, continues even to this day).

Agrarian Economics

While the South’s ethno-cultural background may explain the origin of its primal and sometimes violent code of honor, it doesn’t explain why it remained so entrenched in Southern life for so long while contemporaneous Northerners were quick to adopt the more modern, private notion of honor. To answer that question we simply need to look to the divergent economies of the two regions.

While industrialization transformed the Northern landscape in the 19 th century and sparked the rise of urbanization, the antebellum South remained largely agrarian and rural. This created two important effects in the region: economic opportunities were fewer in number and less diverse, and kinship ties remained very strong.

Land Ownership and Class

While for many, slavery is the first thing that comes to mind when they think of the Old South, only 25% of the white population owned slaves, and 73% of those who did held fewer than ten. In other words, three-quarters of the white population were nonslaveholders. While it is common to imagine there were only two white classes in the South — rich, slave-holding planters and poor whites — there was actually a middle-class majority of non-slaveholders (around 60-70%) who owned their own land. All told, about 75% of all white males in the South owned land. Another number were professionals and artisans, and the remaining percentage were “poor white trash” (yes, this derogatory term originated way back in the 19 th century). Alternately referred to as “squatters,” “crackers,” “clay/dirt-eaters,” and “sand-hillers,” these poor whites eked out a subsistence living in isolated settlements nestled in the hills and mountains, planting perhaps a few crops and raising a few animals, but mainly getting by through hunting and fishing.

The richest planters might own thousands of acres and hundreds of slaves, while a yeoman farmer worked a hundred acres and held no slaves 90-95% of all agricultural wealth in the South was in the hands of slaveholders by 1860. Despite this deep inequality, the culture of the South was quite different than the walled-off oligarchy of the Old World nobility. Whereas Europe’s landed aristocracy held a monopoly on power and claimed honor as exclusively their own, because of the accessibility of land in the South – even if men’s holdings vastly differed – a common bond between the two groups existed.

Yeoman farmers typically lived close to plantation owners, and the two groups frequently intermingled through both trade and kinship. While entering the upper echelon of Southern gentlemen depended partly on family lineage, there was a degree of social and economic mobility non-landowners acquired land, non-slave owners acquired slaves, and non-planters married into planter families. Yet, most yeoman farmers sought not great wealth, but being a “good-liver” — attaining a simple, comfortable self-sufficiency surrounded by one’s family and enough land to pass onto one’s sons. Striving to get ahead was too much work while industry was perhaps the sine qua non of honorable virtues both in Victorian England and the American North, Southerners valued leisure in their lives. In this they harkened back to their Celtic forbearers, who had employed the least labor-intensive method of herding — the open range system – and used the rest of their time for feasting, fighting, and merriment.

This satisfaction with self-sufficiency was rooted in both cultural ideals and practical considerations. While industrialization in the North had opened up a new stratum of diverse professions, options in the South outside of agriculture were far fewer the only other honorable professions were law, medicine, clergy, and the military, but even then, many men hoped these positions would simply serve as stepping-stones towards becoming a planter. And while Northern men were celebrated for having the pluck and initiative to leave home in pursuit of personal goals, Southerners wished to stay close to hearth and home, and some saw such pecuniary striving as crass. Again, this viewpoint derived from both cultural and utilitarian considerations the ability to move into professions and politics in the South relied less on the egalitarian boot-strapping that defined the North, and more on personal and familial connections.

Honor in the South

The differences between the industrialized North and agrarian South led to differences in their honor codes. While the North equated honor with economic success, and economic success with moral character, honor in the South hinged on hitting a more basic threshold.

The Southern ideal, in theory, if not always in practice, was that the rich man was no better than the poor man all whites of all classes considered themselves part of the same honor group. As all traditional honor groups are, it was a classless hierarchy not of wealth, but of rank. The military makes a good comparison. All soldiers are equals as men of honor, but there are higher and lower ranks each strata has greater or lesser responsibilities and privileges, and its own culture.

Every white man acknowledged the personal equality of every other – horizontal honor – while also acknowledging that some, because of blood and talent – had risen higher than others and achieved greater vertical honor. Most who occupied a position below the top respected that setup as proper and natural differences in status did not hold moral significance. Southerners also did not see hierarchy as incompatible with democracy, but rather as a necessary way of bringing order to what would otherwise be a society dominated by chaos and mob rule.

While the poorest whites were seen as dishonorable and despicable because they did not contribute anything to society, and just as importantly, chose to live in isolation from the “tribe,” such a label was only possible for those who could perhaps be members of the honor group, but failed to meet the code. While some Northern gentlemen did not even acknowledge the common manhood of “the roughs” because of their failure to meet any of the requirements of the Stoic-Christian honor code, poor whites in the South had the potential to be included because basic Southern honor was not dependent on gentility (clothes/education/manners), but things that were accessible to every man. While poor whites weren’t generally concerned about the integrity part of the Southern honor code as much as the farmers and planters were, all were united in honoring independence (not working for another man and being master of one’s own “little commonwealth”), strength and personal valor, and a man’s willingness to use violence to defend his reputation. Men from every rank in the South believed that honor required a man to take an aggressive stance to the world – a constant readiness to fight for what was his against the encroachments of outsiders and the insults of scalawags of all varieties.

What About Slavery?

When discussing the differences between North and South in the 19 th century, obviously the huge elephant in the room is slavery. Slavery definitely affected the honor code inasmuch as it shaped the South’s economy and was part of the way of life whites wished to defend. It influenced it in other ways as well, but historians disagree on exactly how. Some think the fear of a slave uprising made Southerners more prone to engaging in reflexive violence – demonstrating strength as a warning against would-be mutineers. Some say that by including all whites in the Southern honor group, rich and poor alike, they pacified possible resentment from the lower class, and thus headed off the possibility of their teaming up with slaves in a rebellion against rich plantation owners. Slavery helped solidify the Southern hierarchy, and traditional honor thrives in an environment of “us vs. them.”

It’s obviously a complex subject, which sits outside the purview of this article. Since an honor group can only consist of those who consider themselves equals, for Southern whites, blacks were obviously excluded. Thus, honor for whites in the South was something generally only judged, jockeyed for, and mediated amongst each other (with the exception of black on white crime, in which a white man’s honor necessitated his meting out justice himself, sometimes in the form of a lynch mob.)

As with the North, we know that just because one group claims exclusive right to honor, doesn’t mean those left out don’t have their own code (i.e., the gentlemen and the roughs). Slaves assuredly had their own code of honor too, but unfortunately no one has tackled that subject yet that I know of. A Ph.D. dissertation waiting to be written…

The Public Nature of Southern Honor

That a man’s public reputation remained the basis of his honor, as opposed to shifting towards private conscience as in the North, was due to the close communities and kinship ties in the South. In the North, waves of immigration, coupled with urbanization, created a diverse society dominated by impersonal relations, making agreement on a single honor code difficult, and sparking the development of personal codes of honor. The South, on the other hand, remained agrarian and sparsely populated at the start of the Civil War, the North had 10+ million more residents.

Southerners preferred to live physically close to their relatives, and the foundation of every community was one’s extended family. One of the interesting signifiers of the way Southerners were more tied to tradition and familial interests versus Northerners can be found in the diverging naming practices of the two regions. For example, at the beginning of the 1800s, only 10% of boys in a typical Massachusetts community were given non-familial names, but that jumped up to 30% by the time of the Civil War. In contrast, Bertram Wyatt-Brown reports that as late as 1940, a rural sociologist in Kentucky “discovered that only 5% of all males had names not affiliated with traditional family first and middle names. Over 70 percent of the men were named for their fathers.” Giving sons familial names symbolized the patriarch’s important position in Southern families, tied grandparents and grandchildren together, and imparted to sons a sense of pride and place in a long lineage – a lineage he was charged with honorably upholding.

As a result of the close-knit, more homogenized nature of Southern society, two fundamental requirements of traditional honor remained in place: a cohesive honor code that everyone in the group understood and ascribed to, and frequent face-to-face interactions that allowed members to judge each other’s reputations. This also left in place traditional honor’s mechanism for dealing with social deviants: public shame and group justice.

Honor acted in tandem with the formal legal system in the South. For Southern men, some matters of honor could not possibly be justly settled in a court of law the matter had to be resolved mano-a-mano, sometimes in the form of a duel. On her deathbed, Andrew Jackson’s mother (Scotch-Irish herself, and an immigrant to the Carolinas) told him: “Avoid quarrels as long as you can without yielding to imposition. But sustain your manhood always. Never bring a suit in law for assault and battery or for defamation. The law affords no remedy for such outrages that can satisfy the feelings of a true man.” Jackson took his mother’s advice to heart, participating in at least 13 “affairs of honor.”

Crimes and disputes that did end up in court were discussed in the taverns and parlors about town, and judges were swayed by the public’s opinion of the crime and of the accused when rendering their sentences. Southerners wanted it this way impersonal justice seemed too Northern — a justice system which incorporated local circumstances preserved local autonomy.

When the community felt that justice, according to the dictates of honor, had not been served by the court, they believed it within their rights to step in and mete out the proper punishment themselves. This often took the form of lynch mobs, which frequently went after blacks, but sometimes fellow whites as well. Whites in need of shaming were more likely to be on the receiving end of a “charivari”, which was an ancient ritual that dates back at least to the Middle Ages in which the townspeople would gather outside the home of one who had violated the community’s norms – perhaps through adultery or wife-beating – and beat on pots and pans, hoot and holler, and sometimes give the accused a tar and feathering. The duly shamed would quickly get the message and high-tail it out of town.

For Southerners, these extra-legal forms of justice were not a substitute for the court system, but a supplement as Wyatt-Brown puts it: “Common law and lynch law were ethically compatible. The first enabled the legal profession to present traditional order, and the second conferred upon ordinary men the prerogative of ensuring that community values held ultimate sovereignty.”

Yet it was the threat of simple, informal shunning — being made an outcast — that was enough to get most Southerners to conform to the code. As in all traditional honor societies, a Southerner’s relations with others and their inclusion in the community were the heart of life one could not separate their personal identity and happiness from their membership in the group. What Moses I. Finley said of the world of Odysseus was true of the South as well: “one’s kin were indistinguishable from oneself.” Thus to be abandoned was the worst possible fate. Thomas Carlyle, a Scottish writer who was popular in the American South, described this tribal mindset well:

“Isolation is the sum-total of wretchedness to man. To be cut off, to be left solitary: to have a world alien, not your world, all a hostile camp for you not a home at all, of hearts and faces who are yours, whose you are! … To have neither superior, nor inferior, nor equal, united manlike to you. Without father, without child, without brother. Man knows no sadder destiny.”

These strong bonds with kin, along with their deep connection to the land, created an honor culture extraordinarily rooted in people and place.

The Three Pillars of Southern Honor Culture

While it is true, as Wyatt-Brown asserts, that “honor in the Old South applied to all white classes,” it was still lived with “manifestations appropriate to each ranking.” If you remember our military analogy above, it can be compared to the way officers and privates are equals as men of honor, but each group has its own culture and way of interacting with each other.

For example, the code of honor of the upper middle class and the wealthy was tempered by gentility. Their aggressive stance to the world was refined and balanced by an emphasis on moral, dignified uprightness, clothes and manners, and education. The latter was typically devoted to classical literature from ancient Greece and Rome The Illiad and The Odyssey were instruction manuals on living a life of honor, and Marcus Aurelius’ Meditations was considered second only to the Bible in importance.

There were, however, three pillars of Southern honor culture that transcended socio-economic status, even if they sometimes manifested themselves differently according to class. For all white Southern men, these three pillars were public, ritual encounters which served to test a man’s honor, and Wyatt-Brown argues, “helped Southerners determine community standing and reaffirm their membership in the immediate circle to which they belonged. In all of them honor and pursuit of place muted the threat of being alone and provided the chance to enjoy the power in fellowship.”

1. Sociability and Hospitality

Generosity, friendliness, warm-heartedness, and expressive sociability were points of honor for a Southerner and one of the primary ways in which he “distinguish[ed] himself from the Yankee.” If the watchwords for the Northerner gentleman were “coolness and detachment,” the watchwords for his Southern counterpart were “passion and affability.” While Southern men honored the Stoics for their apathy towards death and centered calmness in times of both crisis and fortune, they made more allowance for joviality in social situations than their more restrained Northern brethren. Even today, Southerners take pride in their region’s friendly and big-hearted ways.

To combat the fear of solitariness discussed above, Southerners looked for any excuse to get together with friends and kin and held frequent dances, corn huskings, barn raisings, picnics, and militia musterings, amongst many other types of gatherings.

But it was the ancient ritual of hospitality that held the most central role in a Southern man’s sociability and acted as a test of his honor. Wyatt-Brown defines hospitality as “the relationship of an individual and family to outsiders on home turf.” But it started with taking care of one’s own kin. Southerners contrasted their generous approach in aiding their relatives to that which they perceived as the impersonal and tightfisted way in which Northerners more frequently relied on public assistance – leaving the job to asylums, poorhouses, and charitable organizations.

And of course when it came to strangers and visitors, Southerners felt duty-bound to show hospitality to whomever showed up. An element of competition existed in Southern hospitality – households which pulled out more of the stops in entertaining won status in the eyes of the community.

The honor-bound obligation to show hospitality to everyone who appeared on your doorstep could lead to financial distress. When Jefferson returned to Monticello after serving in the White House, even folks who had simply voted for him felt entitled to swing by and say hello having to entertain this constant stream of well-wishers contributed to the large debt with which the president died.

2. Gambling and Drinking

While Southerners were a religious people – often Baptist or Methodist in their faith – the Second Great Awakening that swept the Northeast did not have as transforming an effect in Dixie. In the North, a revival in evangelical Christianity led to an emphasis on seeking moral perfection – both individually and as a community. This desire for purification sparked the creation of reformation groups, such as temperance societies, and led some gentlemen to believe that abstinence from things like alcohol and gambling were requirements of a man’s code of honor.

While such things fell out of favor with Northerners (and some Southerners as well) most Southern men continued to heartily believe that drinking and gambling (what one contemporary referred to as a “generous and manly vice”) were not incompatible with their faith or morality, and greatly contributed to maintaining a social, honorable culture. Their piety on Sundays with their families and the rowdy good fun they had with each other could be compartmentalized, like two different roles in their life. As has famously been said, “The South votes dry, and drinks wet.”

In a time before basketball, football, and hockey, horse racing was America’s most popular sport. Especially anticipated were races that played up sectional hostilities — pitting a Southern-bred horse against a Northern one

Southern men felt that vices like drinking and gambling didn’t make them less of a man, but more of one, because they, just like their Scotch-Irish ancestors, saw its role in building and managing the honor group. As we’ve discussed, in honor groups men challenge and test each other to earn status, and also to prepare each other to face a common enemy. In peace-time, men use games, sports, and drinking to accomplish this. Such diversions give men a chance to best their rivals without rocking the social boat. And through all this friendly competition, camaraderie is built and bonds between men are strengthened.

The “gander pull” was a popular Southern pastime. An old tough male goose (gander) was strung up and its neck slathered with grease. Male contestants, fortified with whisky, would ride under the goose, reach for its neck, and attempt to pull the head off. The ladies would cheer for their “knights,” and hope their man would be the one to present the head to them as a trophy.

Sports gave Southern men a chance to demonstrate their physical prowess — gambling, one’s strategic skill. Even in games of chance, winning boosted a man’s status. Johann Huizinga explains that a lucky win “had a sacred significance the fall of the dice may signify and determine divine workings.” Winning meant God favored you and deemed you worthy of praise from your brethren. That’s why cheating constituted the ultimate dishonor and was worthy of death it was an attempt to unfairly gain status and thwart the will of the gods.

Cheating was sometimes punishable by death.

Fathers in the Old South initiated their sons into the “manly art” of gambling at an early age so they would be ready to take part in the world of men. “Betting,” according to Wyatt-Brown, “was almost a social obligation when men gathered at barbecues, taverns, musters, supper and jockey clubs, race tracks, and on steamboats.” To not ante up was to deny your equal standing with your fellow men, and thus refusing to play “implied cowardice, differentness, unwholesome and even antisocial behavior.” However, compulsive gambling, which consumed one’s inheritance, and the failure to pay a gambling debt were seen as very shameful.

Drinking served the same purpose as gambling. It brought men together and acted as a sorting mechanism for status within the group. The man who could drink the most and hold his liquor showed hardihood and earned the admiration of his peers. Intoxication also heightened the chances that men would provoke or dare each other into fights or hijinks – opportunities for a rollickin’ good time and further tests of manhood.


3. Fighting and Dueling

“The Palmetto State: Her sons bold and chivalrous in war, mild and persuasive in peace, their spirits flush with resentment for wrong.” — toast of J.J. McKilla, at Independence Day militia banquet in Sumterville, South Carolina, 1854

As we’ve mentioned in previous posts, traditional honor began with your own claim to honor, but then that claim had to be ratified by one’s peers. If one of your fellows disavowed your claim, and said the image you projected was false, this was a grave insult if you tolerated the insult, you essentially let another man dominate you, and thus lost status in the group. Fighting the accuser allowed you to maintain your honorable reputation if you beat or killed him, you demonstrated that he was wrong, whether his insult had been true or not.

An accuser knew when he was intentionally drawing a man into a fight calling another man a coward (or in the parlance of the time a “poltroon” or “puppy”) was essentially a declaration you wanted to duel or duke it out. Insulting a man’s honesty in the South, known as “giving the lie,” had the same effect and was sure to provoke instantaneous rage. Ditto for doing wrong to a man’s wife, mother, or daughter Southerners prided themselves on their chivalry. But whether it was a man’s courage or his integrity that was questioned, the recourse was always the same: violence.

While childrearing in the North emphasized the cultivation of inner conscience, and the feeling of guilt in wrongdoing, Southern parents instilled in their progeny a sense of honor, and feeling shame for violating the code. Young boys were encouraged by both their parents and the community to be aggressive and manly, and to fight to defend one’s honor from an early age. And it wasn’t just fathers who sought to impress upon their sons the importance of personal valor mothers were equally adamant on this point. For example, Sam Houston’s mother urged him to fight in the War of 1812, and when he decided to join up, she gave him a plain gold ring with “Honor” engraved inside it, and then handed him a musket saying, “Never disgrace it for remember, I had rather all my sons should fill one honorable grave, than that one of them should turn his back to save his life.”

Boys were taught that even if you got creamed, simply showing your willingness to fight demonstrated your manhood. A story recalled by James Ross, born 1801, illustrates this well. When he was six, Ross bought a knife, but then lost it, and in his naivety, returned to the storekeeper who had sold it to him for a refund of his money. The boy argued with the shopkeep for a while, and some other boys in the store began laughing at him, making him feel ridiculous. When Ross saw a boy he already disliked among the laughing crowd, he fell upon him, and the two proceeded to engage in a long and unmerciful scuffle as the other boys gathered in a circle to watch. When he could no longer go on, Ross was told he had been whipped, and began to make his way home, thoroughly dejected and humiliated. But then an older, more respected boy who had witnessed the fight came over and offered him this advice: “I must cheer up—adding that I had done exactly right every man ought to fight when insulted being whipped was nothing he had been whipped twenty times and was none the worse for it I had fought bravely all the boys said so and he thought a great deal more of me than he did before. This talk comforted me wonderfully and all my troubles soon vanished. It is true my ribs felt sore for several days, but I cared little for that.”

Seldom did a boy of any class make it to adolescence without getting into a fight, or several. For poor boys, as they grew into men they were expected to begin to participate in what was called the “rough and tumble.” A rough and tumble was a no-holds-barred fight where the first man to cry “uncle” lost, and opponents sought to disfigure and maim each other to claim victory fights often ended when one employed “The Gouge” – scooping the other man’s eyeball out of its socket.

“As far as it can be done, we should live peaceably with our associates but, as we cannot always do so, it is necessary occasionally to resist. And when our honor demands resistance, it should be done with courage.” –Advice of North Carolinian William Pettigrew to his younger brother

For middle and upper class boys, schoolyard scraps quickly evolved into true “affairs of honor” teenage duels were not uncommon in the South. Introduced to the US by French and British aristocrats during the Revolutionary War, the Southern upper classes saw dueling as a way to fight and show courage that distinguished itself from the heedless, ugly “rough and tumbles” of their lower class brethren. While theirs were bodily fights of immediate passion, duels were carefully orchestrated rituals between gentlemen who considered each other equals (an insult from an inferior was not worthy of notice). That it required a man to resist the urge to punch a man right on the spot made the duel seem a much more gentlemanly and honorable form of combat. Duels were governed by an elaborate set of rules, and could take weeks and even months to arrange. During that time, the men’s chosen “seconds” (a man’s representative and duel referee) would try to negotiate a peaceful resolution in order to avoid bloodshed.

Even for those showdowns that did make it to the “field of honor,” only 20% of duels ended in a fatality. Gentlemen often aimed for an appendage or deliberately missed. Dueling was much more about demonstrating one’s willingness to literally die for one’s honor, than it was about killing another man it symbolized the culture’s belief that dishonor was worse than death. Southerners scoffed at the way Northern men used the word honor, but defended an insult with a fist fight or a contemptuous laugh and turn of the heel an honor not worth dying for was not honor at all.

Dueling was seen by some as a way to head off feuds, and as an incentive for gentlemen to conduct themselves in the most upright manner. But it always had its critics and was the most controversial of the three pillars – even Jefferson Davis condemned it. Yet even as Southern states outlawed the practice and anti-dueling societies arose, gentlemen continued to participate in the ritual without much public censure during the antebellum period. Including violence, even if in a ritualized way, allowed upper class men to hold onto the essential nature of traditional honor the celebration of personal valor tied all classes of whites together.

Southern Honor and the Civil War

While folks still debate whether the Civil War was primarily about states’ rights or slavery, an argument can in fact be made that it was also largely about something that has subsequently been lost to time: honor.

Both sides saw and referred to the struggle as a duel as Wyatt-Brown puts it, “for many, the Civil War was reduced to a simple test of manhood.”

In the South, William L. Yancey told the 1860 Democratic convention in Charleston:

“Ours is the property invaded ours are the institutions which are at stake ours in the peace that is to be destroyed ours is the honor at stake–the honor of children, the honor of families, the lives, perhaps, of all.”

In the North, Lorien Foote describes a report in the popular magazine Harper’s Weekly “about the private meeting among some of the leading gentlemen of New York City in the tense days of the secession crisis. When one participant proposed to ‘accede’ to all the south’s demands, others jumped to their feet to denounce such a ‘total, unqualified, abject surrender in advance of all national and individual honor.’ They demanded that the men of the north at least ‘strike one blow for our own honor’ rather than ‘deliberately to relinquish our manhood.’”

The conflict between North and South was depicted by cartoonists as a fist fight between Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis.

While both the North and the South saw the war in terms of honor, what motivated the men to fight differed greatly. In the North, volunteers joined the cause because of more abstract ideals like freedom, equality, democracy, and Union. In the South, men grabbed their rifles to protect something more tangible — hearth and home — their families and way of life. Their motivation was rooted in their deeply entrenched loyalty to people and place.

But what if a man felt allegiance both to the principles espoused by the North, and the honor of the South? The ancient Greeks had grappled with what to do when one’s loyalties to one’s honor group conflicted with one’s loyalty to conscience. Such a conflict has been a struggle for warriors ever since, and is best embodied during this time in the life of Robert E. Lee.

Lee was the perfect example of the South’s genteel honor code and what William Alexander Percy called the “broad-sword tradition:” “a dedication to manly valor in battle coolness under fire sacrifice of self to succor and protect comrades, family, and country magnamity gracious manners prudence in council deference to ladies and finally, stoic acceptance of what Providence has dictated.” He had also served and greatly distinguished himself in the United States Army for 32 years, so much so, that as the Civil War loomed, Lincoln offered Lee command of the Union forces. Lee was torn in the days before secession, he wrote, “I wish to live under no other government & there is no sacrifice I am not ready to make for the preservation of the Union save that of honor.” Lee did not favor secession and wished for a peaceable solution instead but his home state of Virginia seceded, and he was thus faced with the decision to remain loyal to the Union and take up arms against his people, or break with the Union to fight against his former comrades. He chose the latter. Lee’s wife (who privately sympathized with the Union cause) said this of her husband’s decision: “[He] has wept tears of blood over this terrible war, but as a man of honor and a Virginian, he must follow the destiny of his State.” In a traditional honor culture, loyalty to your honor group takes precedence over all other demands — even those of one’s own conscience.

Many other Southerners of divided loyalties made the same choice as Lee. United in opposition to the encroachment of outsiders, the perceived threat to their autonomy, and simply the necessity of showing honor by adopting an aggressive stance and fighting when insulted, the vast majority of white Southerners, whether slave-owners or not, took up arms for the Confederacy. Because of their shared honor code, there was, at least at first, a great deal of unity in the “solid South,” and less of the socioeconomic clashes that arose between the gentlemen and the roughs in the Union Army. For example, while the average personal wealth for company officers in the Confederate Army was $88,500, for noncoms and privates it was $760 – an incredible gulf. And yet company officers were elected by troops themselves – showing that they saw such men as their natural leaders.

Northerners were long critical of the South’s claims to chivalry, as depicted in this Thomas Nast cartoon from Harper’s Weekly.

Greater conflict would arise in the South, as it had in the North, when the Confederacy instituted conscription. Some chafed at this insult to their personal mastery of their lives, as well as Jefferson Davis’ suspension of habeas corpus, wartime inflation, and laws that exempted men who owned 15 slaves or more from the draft. These and other onerous effects of the conflict led some lower class men to grumble that it was a “rich man’s war and a poor man’s fight.”

In some ways, the South’s traditional honor code worked against the Confederacy’s efforts. A man would sometimes only agree to enlist if given a guarantee that he’d be retained in his own county or state – he was interested in fighting to protect his kin, not on some anonymous battlefield a few states over. For that same reason, drafted men, particularly if married, would often desert their unit if they were transferred far from home. And if a family emergency arose, or his wife and children needed help bringing in the crop, a man felt justified in going AWOL. Southern honor demanded loyalty to one’s people and place above all, and devotion to family and home was the highest of those sacred obligations.

Southern Honor Culture Lives On

Although the Civil War ended almost 150 years ago, 4 in 10 Southerners still sympathize with the Confederacy. While I won’t wade into the endless debate over whether, and to what extent, this attachment to history is appropriate, I will say that what is invariably missing from the debate, and crucial to fully apprehending it, is an understanding of the culture of Southern honor. The echoes of that culture go far beyond the displaying of the Confederate flag, and still influence the behavior of many Southern men to this day.

Since the end of the war until now, the South has had an overall higher rate of violent crime and of homicide specifically, than the Northeast. Compare, for example, two quintessential Southern and Northern states: South Carolina and Massachusetts. According to the US Census, in 2007 SC ranked first in the country as to the number of violent crimes per 100,000 people (788), while Massachusetts came in at twenty-second with nearly half that (432).

Chart Source: Culture Of Honor: The Psychology Of Violence In The South by Richard E Nisbett and Dov Cohen

However, when you start to analyze the data further, things get much more interesting. Psychologists Richard Nisbett and Dov Cohen looked at homicide stats for the North and South, and found that once you separate the murders into two categories — argument/conflict-related and felony-related — the South only has a significantly higher rate when it comes to the former. What this means is that murders in the North are more likely to occur during the course of another crime, like burglary, and involve strangers, whereas murders in the South are more likely to arise from a personal conflict, such as a barfight or love triangle. Other studies have shown that only homicides that involve a victim personally known to the perpetrator are elevated in the South compared to other regions of the country. Most interesting of all is the fact that this effect is correlated to the size of a town or city. In medium-size cities (pop. 50k-200k), Southern white males commit murder at a rate of 2 to 1 when compared to the rest of the country in small cities (pop. 10k-50k) the ratio is 3 to 1 in rural areas it is 4 to 1. After reading this post, you can probably guess why this is so – a small town provides the intimate, face-to-face relationships that are essential to an honor culture, and creates an environment where everyone knows your reputation, and an insult to it can lead to violent altercations.

Nisbett and Cohen followed up their findings with a study that looked at the differences between the emotional and physiological responses of Northern and Southern white men when faced with an insult. They had both Northern and Southern college-age men come into the lab under the pretense of taking part in an unrelated study. They were asked to take a questionnaire to a room at the end of a long and narrow hallway, and as they made their way down it, a confederate to the experimenters would bump into the subject, and call him an “asshole.” During this altercation, the subjects’ emotional response was recorded, and afterwards their levels of cortisol (which is released from arousal and stress), and testosterone (which increases when gearing up for something that will involve aggression and dominance) were measured. The result? Nisbett and Cohen found that Northern men reacted with more amusement to the insult than anger, while the Southerners reacted with more anger than amusement. Their physiological response differed too. The cortisol levels of insulted Northerners rose 33%, even less than the control Northerners who walked down the hallway without being bumped at all. But the cortisol levels of insulted Southerners went up more than double that: 79%. The testosterone levels of Northern increased by 6%, but went up 12% for Southerners.

Chart Source: Culture Of Honor: The Psychology Of Violence In The South by Richard E Nisbett and Dov Cohen

All of which is to say that in their reaction to insult, Southern men today remain tied, both culturally and physiologically, to their antebellum forbearers, and to their Scotch-Irish ancestors.

This is true when it comes to those ancestors’ warrior values as well. Before the Civil War, Southerners occupied nearly every important position in the US Army, could claim the lion’s share of its most distinguished commanders, and had served as Secretary of War every year in the decade and a half prior to secession. Overall, Southern families contributed more sons to the Army than the North, despite the difference in population. And this too remains true today. As you can see from this map (which is controlled for population), many more service members are based in the South (and in the Western frontier states where an honor culture also thrived in the 19 th century) than in the Northeast:

Conclusion

Since this has gone on so long, let’s make this the shortest conclusion possible. While we said in the last post that after the Civil War, the North’s Stoic-Christian honor code triumphed over the South’s traditional one, it would really be more accurate to say that each region’s respective code continued on for a few more decades. But despite the echoes that remain in the South today, the public, cultural nature of neither code were any match for the increasing urbanization, diversification, and shifting values of the US in the 20 th century. Which is where we’ll turn next.


Oscar’s Folly Cocktail

This vibrantly layered Irish whiskey cocktail celebrates Saint Patrick’s Day in all of its glory. Paying homage to the famous Irish playwright and poet Oscar Wilde, this spirit-forward cocktail will have you spouting prose into your drinking glass “I can resist everything except temptation!”


RECIPES FROM FRIENDS

Osage Rendezvous

Combine all ingredients in mixing glass, shake vigorously, and then strain into cocktail glass over fresh ice.

Strawberry Gin Fizz

From Lisa Guildehaus at Cedar Creek Town Hall in New Haven, MO

Muddle gin with 3 or 4 strawberries w/a couple of mint leaves. Shake and strain into 10 oz. glass of ice. Top off with club soda.

Tazmanian Devil Cocktail

Gary Leabman created this high octane drink in honor of Taz the Wonderdog

  • 1oz Pinckney Bend Gin
  • Tres Agave Tequilla
  • 1/2oz Pinckney Bend Classic Tonic Syrup
  • .5 oz Stirrings Ginger Liqueur
  • 2 oz. 7-up

Build in glass and serve in V-shape cocktail glass.

Ford’s Blackberry Bramble Tonic

From Brock Schulte, The Drum Room, President Hotel, Kansas City, MO

  • 1½ oz. Pinckney Bend Gin
  • ¾ oz. fresh lemon juice
  • ½ oz. simple syrup
  • ½ oz. Pinckney Bend Tonic Syrup
  • 5 fresh blackberries

Give all ingredients a medium shake and transfer to a collins glass, garnish with a sprig of mint.

Straighten Out That Bend Cocktail

Combine with ice, shake, and then strain into collins glass.

Dixie Quick’s Raspberry Mojito

  • 2 oz. Pinckney Bend Gin
  • ½ oz. Trenel Framboise
  • ¾ oz. fresh lime juice
  • Large pinch of fresh mint
  • ¼ oz. simple syrup

Lightly muddle the large pinch of fresh mint in a glass filled with ¼ oz simple syrup. Add Pinckney Bend Gin, Trenel Framboise and fresh lime juice then shake with ice. Fine strain contents into chilled collins glass filled with fresh ice. Top with splash of soda. Garnish with mint sprig.

Just Around The Corner

From Mark Hinkle at Annie Gunn’s in Chesterfield, MO

  • 1 ½ oz. Pinckney Bend Gin
  • ½ oz. Heering Cherry Liqueur
  • ½ oz. fresh lemon juice
  • ½ oz. simple syrup
  • 1 oz. Perennial Artisan Ales Hommel Bier

Shake first 4 ingredients w/ ice and serve over rocks in a collins glass. Top with Hommel Bier and garnish with a lemon twist.

Daggers & Lace

From Ted Kilgore at Taste in St. Louis, MO

  • Pickney Bend Gin
  • The Big O Ginger Liqueur
  • Green Chartreuse
  • Fresh squeezed lime juice

Put equal proportions of each ingredient into a cocktail shaker. Shake and serve.

Espresso Martini

If you’re looking for a boozey pick-me-up after dinner, this version has special magical boozey powers. As seen on Pour at Four.

  • 2oz Pinckney Bend Cask Gin
  • 1 oz Kahlua or Coffee-Based Liquor
  • .25oz Sweet Vermouth

Season the ice with the vermouth. Shake well. Strain into a chilled glass. Garnish with espresso bean or whipped cream.

Martinez

The predecessor to the venerable Martini, this classic cousin may become your new favorite. As seen on Pour at Four.

  • 2oz Pinckney Bend Cask Gin
  • .25oz Maraschino liqueur or juice
  • .25oz Sweet Vermouth
  • Dash Orange Bitters

Shale all ingredients vigorously with ice. Strain into a chilled cocktail glass

Cask Collins

The perfect grown-up variation of a gin-fueled classic. This Cask Collins is loaded with refreshing citrus and hints of toasted spice.

  • 3/4 oz. Simple Syrup
  • 3/4 oz. Fresh Lemon Juice
  • 2 oz. Pinckney Bend Cask Gin
  • 3 oz. Club Soda

Build all except club in a cocktail shaker over ice. Shake vigorously and strain into glass over ice. Top with Club soda.


25 Powerful Prayers for Healing, Comfort, Recovery and Strength

There are no guarantees in life. We will be faced with many moments of affliction and pain that require us to seek the Lord as our refuge and strength. These powerful prayers for healing, comfort, recovery and strength will provide you with the encouragement that you seek in your hour of need.

Healing Prayer
Heavenly Father, hear my prayer for healing. Thank you that you are the resurrection and the life, death holds no power over you. Your word says that you will be the cries of all those who call on you. You say that you will send out your word and heal them. Increase my faith that I may call on your unfailing love for the healing and recovery that I need. Lord, bless me and keep me, make your face shine upon me. Turn your face towards me and give me peace. Through Jesus Christ, our Lord. Amen.

Recovery Prayer
Heavenly Father, you say that I should ask you for whatever I need. To those who ask, it will be given. To those who seek, it will be found. To those who knock, the door will be opened. I ask you for healing and recovery today. You are the God of all hope and so I look to you in my time of need. You are the healing God, please bring healing. You are the Comforter, please bring comfort. You are the spring of living water, help me find life in all its fullness in you. Through Jesus Christ, our Lord. Amen.

Restore My Health Prayer
Mighty God, thank you that you are my rock and fortress, I can always find refuge in you. You have said that you are the God who forgives my sins and heals my illness, redeeming my life from the pit and crowning me with love and compassion. Hear my prayer as I call on your powerful name and restore me to full health. Neither death or life, angels or rulers, things present or future, height or depth, or anything else in all creation, will be able to separate me from your love. Through Jesus Christ, our Lord. Amen.

Strength for the Weary Prayer
O Lord my God, thank you that you know my every need. You have promised that you will give strength to the weary and increase the power of the weak. Please help me to draw on your strength as I feel weak, to receive your healing when I feel pain and to know your comfort in the midst of my distress. You are the God of endurance and encouragement. Help me to live in perfect harmony with you and glorify you with my thoughts, words and deeds. Through Jesus Christ, our Lord. Amen.

Sustaining Power Prayer
Creator God, you made a world with no sickness, pain or death but, because of sin, they affect everyone in the world. I can not control the things that happen to me, I need to cling onto you. As I experience health problems, I am reminded of how dependent I am on your sustaining power. You can bring health to my body and healing to my bones. You can restore my strength, you can give me hope in my struggle. Thank you that I can entrust every aspect of my life into your loving hands. Through Jesus Christ, our Lord. Amen.

Uphold Me Prayer
Loving Father, thank you that you are the source of all true joy in life. You have said that I have nothing to fear when you are with me. With you alongside me I will not be dismayed, you will strengthen and heal me, you will uphold me with your righteous right hand. Please restore me to health Lord. You are the God of hope. Fill me with all joy and peace in believing, so that by the power of the Holy Spirit I may abound in hope. Through Jesus Christ, our Lord. Amen.

Healing Power Prayer
Lord Jesus Christ, thank you that you are faithful to fulfill all your promises. The Bible says that you have taken my pain, you have borne my suffering, you were pierced for my transgressions, you were crushed for my iniquities, your punishment brings me peace and by your wounds, I am healed. Let me be restored through your healing power. May the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with me always. Through Jesus Christ, our Lord. Amen.

Ease My Pain Prayer
Lord Jesus Christ, King of Kings, you created all things and you sustain all things. Ease my pain and strengthen me when I feel unable to carry on. You say that the prayer of a righteous person is powerful and effective. Remind me that my sins have been atoned for and I am clothed in your perfect righteousness. I pray based on confidence in your righteousness, not my own. In your mercy Lord, hear my prayer and turn your face towards me. Your power is great enough to heal any illness and I ask you to extend your healing hand towards me. In your mighty name. Amen.

Fullness of Life Prayer
Everlasting Father, thank you that you are my shield and my strength. You have said that you have the power to restore my health and give me fullness of life. In your love, you will keep me from destruction. Heal me and use my time of suffering to increase my faith in you. May Christ dwell in my heart through faith so that I, being rooted and grounded in love, may have the strength to know the love of Christ that surpasses knowledge. May I be filled with all the fullness of you. Through Jesus Christ, our Lord. Amen.

Comfort Prayer
Wonderful Counselor, thank you that you will never leave me or forsake me. You have promised that you are watching over me and that you will heal me. You have said that you will bring guidance and restore comfort to those in anguish. Bring peace and healing to me, Lord. Thank you that you are always near and your ear is ready to hear my prayer. You are able to do far more abundantly than all that I ask or imagine, according to the power at work within me. To you be glory throughout all generations, forever and ever. Through Jesus Christ, our Lord. Amen.

Healing Touch Prayer
Healing God, thank you that you hear and answer my prayers. The Bible says that you will meet all my needs according to the riches of your glory in Christ Jesus. Look on my physical, emotional and spiritual needs today Lord and reach out with your healing touch. Remind me that there is nothing that I encounter that is beyond your control and there is nothing that I have done which has taken me beyond the reach of your love. May your peace, which surpasses all understanding, guard my heart and my mind in Christ Jesus. Through Jesus Christ, our Lord. Amen.

No More Tears Prayer
Faithful Father, thank you that you know me and you love me. Your word says that there will be a day when you will wipe every tear from my eyes. On that day there will be no more crying, pain, sin or death. Give me the strength to endure, and the hope that you will bring me comfort. May the word of Christ dwell in me richly, teaching me in all wisdom. Whatever I do, in word or deed, may I do everything in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God the Father. Through Jesus Christ, our Lord. Amen.

Compassionate God Prayer
Lord Jesus Christ, you are the God of compassion. As crowds gathered around you, they begged you to let the sick just touch the edge of your cloak. You did not turn them away but looked on them with compassion and healed them. I bring my need before you now and ask you to look with compassion and heal once again. You have the power to turn any situation around. I cry out to you with the faith that knows that you are the same yesterday, today and forever. Through Jesus Christ, our Lord. Amen.

Renew My Strength Prayer
Heavenly Father, thank you that those who hope in you will have their strength renewed. They will soar on wings like eagles they will run and not grow weary, they will walk and not be faint. Your word brings life to those who hear you and health to the body for those who call on you. Please help me to pray to you in faith that you ill hear. Help me increase and abound in love for others. May you establish my heart as blameless in holiness before you. Through Jesus Christ, our Lord. Amen.

Peace Prayer
King of Kings, Lord of Lords, thank you that, even though I walk through the darkest valley, I will fear no evil, for you are with me your rod and your staff, they comfort me. Remind me that your grace is my strength in times of need, your love is my hope in times of distress. You are the God of peace. May you sanctify me completely, and may my whole spirit and soul and body be kept blameless at the coming of the Lord Jesus Christ. You, who called me, are faithful to the end. Through Jesus Christ, our Lord. Amen.

Comfort My Heart Prayer
Lord, my Rock and Redeemer, thank you that you will give wisdom to anyone who asks. The Bible says that, if anyone is sick, they should confess their sins and pray for each other that they may be healed. I confess my sins to you Lord and ask for your forgiveness. As I pray to you for myself and others, let me be healed. May the Lord Jesus Christ, who loved me and gives me eternal comfort and good hope through grace, comfort my heart and establish me in every good work and word. Through Jesus Christ, our Lord. Amen.

Give Me Rest Prayer
All-Knowing God, thank you that all you who are weary and burdened should come to you, and you will give rest. Your yoke is easy and your burden is light. Your word says that the prayer of a righteous person is powerful and effective. Lord, I have no confidence in my own righteousness but I am grateful that I stand before you clothed in Jesus’ righteousness. Please help me to pray for my needs knowing that my prayers are powerful and effective. You are the King of ages, immortal, invisible, the only God. To you be honor and glory forever and ever. Through Jesus Christ, our Lord. Amen.

Full Strength Prayer
God of the Universe, thank you that you are near to all who call on you, to all who call on you in truth. As I look to the cross of Jesus I see the death of sin and a life of righteousness. My healing is found in your wounds. Please help me to recover to full strength. You are the Sovereign King of kings and Lord of lords, who alone has immortality, who dwells in unapproachable light. To you be honor and eternal dominion. Through Jesus Christ, our Lord. Amen.

Healing and Recovery Prayer
Heavenly Father, your word says that if anyone is in trouble, they should pray. If anyone is happy, they should sing songs of praise and if anyone is sick, they should pray in the name of the Lord Jesus. I want to pray for my healing and recovery today. You say that the prayer that is offered in faith will make the sick person well so I offer this prayer in faith to you. My faith is not in the strength of my prayer of in anything that I can do but my confidence is in your character and power. Through Jesus Christ, our Lord. Amen

Wholeness Prayer
Heavenly Father, thank you that you will fight for me while I remain still, rooted in you. I pray that you will fight for my healing and recovery at this time. Heal me internally and externally. Heal my mind, body and spirit. Help me to find abundant life in your grace and mercy. Transform my life, Lord. You are the God of peace, the great shepherd of the sheep. May you equip me with everything good that I may do your will. Work in me, that I may be pleasing in your sight. Through Jesus Christ, our Lord. Amen.

Revive My Spirit Prayer
Lord Jesus Christ, thank you that I do not need to be anxious about anything, but in every situation, I should present my requests to you. You are able to bring healing. You are able to restore my strength. You are able to revive my spirit. You are able to remove my fear. You are able to keep me from stumbling and to present me blameless before the presence of your glory with great joy. To you, my God, be glory, majesty, dominion, and authority, before all time and now and forever. In your mighty name. Amen.

Name Above All Names Prayer
Lord Jesus, the name above every other name, thank you that you look on your people with compassion. May I be like the leper who came to you with simple faith, asking to be healed. You looked on him lovingly and healed him. I come before you now with the same faith in your power and your mercy. May I respond with gratitude to you. May my life be filled with thankfulness for your love. You have loved me and have freed me from my sins by your blood. To you be glory and dominion forever and ever. In your wonderful name. Amen.

Ever Present Help Prayer
Heavenly Father, thank you that you are my ever-present help in times of trouble. I hear the words of Jesus: Do not be afraid, just believe and you will be healed. Remove my fear and unbelief, help me to have confidence in your power to bring healing and restoration. Increase my faith in you that I may see you at work more clearly. May I grow in the grace and knowledge of my Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. To you be the glory both now and to the day of eternity. Through Jesus Christ, our Lord. Amen.

Heal the Sick Prayer
Lord Jesus Christ, thank you, that you hear and answer my prayers. You sent out your disciples with the command to heal the sick, raise the dead, cleanse the lepers and drive out demons. They were able to do this because of your mighty power working in and through them. I ask for that same power to touch my life and provide the healing and recovery I need. Nothing is impossible for you. You can do more than I can ask or even imagine. Extend your healing touch to me, Lord. In your powerful name. Amen.

Healing Light Prayer
Heavenly Father, thank you that you can satisfy my every desire and need. Your word says that, for those who honor your name, the sun of righteousness will rise with healing in its rays. Cause your light to shine on me at this time and restore me to full health. Please help me to find strength in you, whatever my circumstances may be. May grace, mercy, and peace be with me, from God the Father and from Jesus Christ the Son, and the Holy Spirit in truth and love. Amen.

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LILLET TONIQUE

Low-alcohol cocktails have always been popular in Europe, especially during the predinner hour as an appetite simulator. They’ve become increasingly appreciated in the United States in recent years, and we are big fans of this trend.

For this low-alcohol aperitif, we turned to Lillet, an elegant fortified wine from France that has been automatized with citrus and herbs. It’s similar to vermouth in that its alcohol content is greater than that of wine but less than that of a liqueur or a spirit. The original formula, dating to the 1870s, contained quinine (the ingredient that wards off malaria and makes tonic water bitter), but that was removed in the 1980s, making the current iteration of Lillet lighter and more citrus-forward.

Traditionally Lillet is served on its own over ice as an aperitif, but we wanted to create a cocktail with it, one that was playful while still maintaining the aromatized wine’s air of sophistication. So we decided to put the quinine back in. And our tasters agreed—we initially tried to add fizz via plain seltzer instead of tonic, but they found this version lacking in flavor and complexity.

We ultimately discovered that incorporating ¼ ounce of our Tonic Syrup in addition to the seltzer provided a lovely, balanced mix of citrus, herbal, and floral flavors. To garnish, we simply added a lemon slice, which helped emphasize the citrus notes of the Lillet. We prefer to use our homemade Tonic Syrup and seltzer here however, you can substitute 3 ounces of store-bought tonic water for the syrup and seltzer, if you like.

Fill chilled wine glass halfway with ice. Add Lillet and tonic syrup and stir to combine using bar spoon. Add seltzer and, using spoon, gently lift Lillet mixture from bottom of glass to top to combine. Top with additional ice and garnish with lemon slice. Serve.

The Food Network Recipes LILLET TONIQUE


The Old Fashioned

Tools: mixing glass, strainer Glass: old-fashioned glass Garnish: twist of lemon Pour the bitters, sugar and water into a mixing glass half-filled with cracked ice. Stir well until the sugar is dissolved. Strain over cracked iced in an old-fashioned glass. Add Angel's Envy and stir well. Garnish with a twist of lemon.

More Info

The important thing to remember about the Old Fashioned is that ‘Old’ is a relative term. Like, relative to the late 1800s old. The Old Fashioned is old enough that it was once considered a medicinal tonic. But it was always an alternative for people who didn’t enjoy their spirits straight.

While variations of the recipe made with different spirits are considerably older, the whiskey version of the Old Fashioned is often credited to a bartender at Louisville’s famous Pendennis Club. It was allegedly created in 1891 to honor noted distiller James E. Pepper, who eventually brought the recipe to New York City’s Waldorf-Astoria Hotel bar.

Shortly after Prohibition, a man calling himself “Old Timer” wrote a letter to the editor at The Times. He made an impassioned plea to the bartenders of New York, asking them to embrace and honor the traditional recipe of the Old Fashioned. Why is this relevant? Because Old Fashioned recipes have varied over the generations. There’s even a fierce scholarly debate over whether or not it includes cherries, muddled or otherwise. So to honor the spirit of this anonymous post-prohibition traditionalist and continue the debate, we’ll present a perfect Original Old Fashioned recipe below.


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