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Engineering Students Wants to Brew Beer on the Moon

Engineering Students Wants to Brew Beer on the Moon

University of California, San Diego engineering students are putting forth a plan to test yeast fermentation on the moon

That’s one small step for mankind, several giant hops for beer-lovers everywhere.

Forget growing lettuce on Mars — the important space mission we should be focused on is the plan to put a brewery on the moon. A group of young scientists want to make that happen courtesy of a contest being held by the Indian startup Team Indus, part of the $30 million Google Lunar XPRIZE competition. Team Indus is calling on all scientists under 25 to envision a sustainable settlement on the moon, and the winning team will launch its project aboard the Lunar X on Dec. 28, 2017.

Six students from the University of California, San Diego — who comprise “Team Original Gravity” — have been shortlisted in Team Indus’ Lab2Moon competition for their idea to test the fermentation of yeast in space and brew beer on the moon.

“We all appreciate the craft of beer, and some of us own our own home-brewing kits,” Neeki Ashari, a fifth-year bioengineering student, told Space.com. “When we heard that there was an opportunity to design an experiment that would go up on India’s moon lander, we thought we could combine our hobby with the competition by focusing on the viability of yeast in outer space."

It’s not only beer they’d be making. The team would also want to bake bread and develop pharmaceuticals for use back on Earth.


Chill coffee beans for a more flavorsome brew, say scientists

Maxwell Colonna-Dashwood (L) and Dr Christopher Hendon (R) at the Colonna & Smalls coffee shop in Bath. Credit: University of Bath

In the lead up to the World Barista Championships, University of Bath scientists say brewing more flavoursome coffee could be as simple as chilling the beans before grinding.

A team from the University working with renowned Bath coffee shop Colonna & Smalls found that chilling roasted beans before grinding resulted in narrower distribution of small particles, which during the brewing process allows access to more flavour from the same amount of coffee.

Coffee is among the most valuable traded commodities globally, worth $17.9T USD to the US economy in 2015 alone. This discovery could have big implications for the coffee industry and might even allow domestic coffee connoisseurs to brew tastier beverages.

The team studied the effect of grinding beans at different temperatures, from room temperature to -196°C, and discovered that the colder the beans the finer and more uniform the particles were from the grind.

That's important, because small uniform coffee grinds allow for better extraction of the flavour compounds - allowing you to brew more coffee and get more flavour.

Dr Christopher Hendon, a chemistry PhD student at the University of Bath at the time of the study, now working at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, said: "What you're looking for is a grind that has the smallest difference between the smallest and largest particle. If you have small grinds you can push flavour extraction upwards. We found that chilling the beans tightens up this process and can give higher extractions with less variance in the flavour - so you would have to brew it for less time, or could get more coffee from the same beans.

"It will alter the taste, because subtle changes in particle size distributions make a huge difference in rate of extraction. I wouldn't be surprised if people struggled to achieve balanced extractions.

"It could have a major impact for the industry. People are trying to produce a very high quality drink with really quite powerful tools and are willing to try new things."

The study, highlighted in Nature, is published in Scientific Reports.

Maxwell Colonna-Dashwood, co-owner of Colonna & Smalls, said: "Grinding coffee may seem quite straightforward - break coffee up into a lot of tiny bits so you can dissolve it in water. But like the whole world of coffee the subtleties of the process have a huge impact on the flavour and quality of the cup of coffee. The ability to understand grinding more comprehensively has the dual impact of allowing us to make better tasting coffee and to be more efficient in the way we do that.

"The research suggests that temperature of bean needs to be more constant to help us achieve consistent grinds. It suggests that cooler temperatures will allow us to maximise surface area and utilise more of the coffee. All of this will impact on how we prepare coffee in the industry, I bet we will see the impact of this paper in coffee competitions around the globe, but also in the research and development of new grinding technology for the market place."


Chill coffee beans for a more flavorsome brew, say scientists

Maxwell Colonna-Dashwood (L) and Dr Christopher Hendon (R) at the Colonna & Smalls coffee shop in Bath. Credit: University of Bath

In the lead up to the World Barista Championships, University of Bath scientists say brewing more flavoursome coffee could be as simple as chilling the beans before grinding.

A team from the University working with renowned Bath coffee shop Colonna & Smalls found that chilling roasted beans before grinding resulted in narrower distribution of small particles, which during the brewing process allows access to more flavour from the same amount of coffee.

Coffee is among the most valuable traded commodities globally, worth $17.9T USD to the US economy in 2015 alone. This discovery could have big implications for the coffee industry and might even allow domestic coffee connoisseurs to brew tastier beverages.

The team studied the effect of grinding beans at different temperatures, from room temperature to -196°C, and discovered that the colder the beans the finer and more uniform the particles were from the grind.

That's important, because small uniform coffee grinds allow for better extraction of the flavour compounds - allowing you to brew more coffee and get more flavour.

Dr Christopher Hendon, a chemistry PhD student at the University of Bath at the time of the study, now working at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, said: "What you're looking for is a grind that has the smallest difference between the smallest and largest particle. If you have small grinds you can push flavour extraction upwards. We found that chilling the beans tightens up this process and can give higher extractions with less variance in the flavour - so you would have to brew it for less time, or could get more coffee from the same beans.

"It will alter the taste, because subtle changes in particle size distributions make a huge difference in rate of extraction. I wouldn't be surprised if people struggled to achieve balanced extractions.

"It could have a major impact for the industry. People are trying to produce a very high quality drink with really quite powerful tools and are willing to try new things."

The study, highlighted in Nature, is published in Scientific Reports.

Maxwell Colonna-Dashwood, co-owner of Colonna & Smalls, said: "Grinding coffee may seem quite straightforward - break coffee up into a lot of tiny bits so you can dissolve it in water. But like the whole world of coffee the subtleties of the process have a huge impact on the flavour and quality of the cup of coffee. The ability to understand grinding more comprehensively has the dual impact of allowing us to make better tasting coffee and to be more efficient in the way we do that.

"The research suggests that temperature of bean needs to be more constant to help us achieve consistent grinds. It suggests that cooler temperatures will allow us to maximise surface area and utilise more of the coffee. All of this will impact on how we prepare coffee in the industry, I bet we will see the impact of this paper in coffee competitions around the globe, but also in the research and development of new grinding technology for the market place."


Chill coffee beans for a more flavorsome brew, say scientists

Maxwell Colonna-Dashwood (L) and Dr Christopher Hendon (R) at the Colonna & Smalls coffee shop in Bath. Credit: University of Bath

In the lead up to the World Barista Championships, University of Bath scientists say brewing more flavoursome coffee could be as simple as chilling the beans before grinding.

A team from the University working with renowned Bath coffee shop Colonna & Smalls found that chilling roasted beans before grinding resulted in narrower distribution of small particles, which during the brewing process allows access to more flavour from the same amount of coffee.

Coffee is among the most valuable traded commodities globally, worth $17.9T USD to the US economy in 2015 alone. This discovery could have big implications for the coffee industry and might even allow domestic coffee connoisseurs to brew tastier beverages.

The team studied the effect of grinding beans at different temperatures, from room temperature to -196°C, and discovered that the colder the beans the finer and more uniform the particles were from the grind.

That's important, because small uniform coffee grinds allow for better extraction of the flavour compounds - allowing you to brew more coffee and get more flavour.

Dr Christopher Hendon, a chemistry PhD student at the University of Bath at the time of the study, now working at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, said: "What you're looking for is a grind that has the smallest difference between the smallest and largest particle. If you have small grinds you can push flavour extraction upwards. We found that chilling the beans tightens up this process and can give higher extractions with less variance in the flavour - so you would have to brew it for less time, or could get more coffee from the same beans.

"It will alter the taste, because subtle changes in particle size distributions make a huge difference in rate of extraction. I wouldn't be surprised if people struggled to achieve balanced extractions.

"It could have a major impact for the industry. People are trying to produce a very high quality drink with really quite powerful tools and are willing to try new things."

The study, highlighted in Nature, is published in Scientific Reports.

Maxwell Colonna-Dashwood, co-owner of Colonna & Smalls, said: "Grinding coffee may seem quite straightforward - break coffee up into a lot of tiny bits so you can dissolve it in water. But like the whole world of coffee the subtleties of the process have a huge impact on the flavour and quality of the cup of coffee. The ability to understand grinding more comprehensively has the dual impact of allowing us to make better tasting coffee and to be more efficient in the way we do that.

"The research suggests that temperature of bean needs to be more constant to help us achieve consistent grinds. It suggests that cooler temperatures will allow us to maximise surface area and utilise more of the coffee. All of this will impact on how we prepare coffee in the industry, I bet we will see the impact of this paper in coffee competitions around the globe, but also in the research and development of new grinding technology for the market place."


Chill coffee beans for a more flavorsome brew, say scientists

Maxwell Colonna-Dashwood (L) and Dr Christopher Hendon (R) at the Colonna & Smalls coffee shop in Bath. Credit: University of Bath

In the lead up to the World Barista Championships, University of Bath scientists say brewing more flavoursome coffee could be as simple as chilling the beans before grinding.

A team from the University working with renowned Bath coffee shop Colonna & Smalls found that chilling roasted beans before grinding resulted in narrower distribution of small particles, which during the brewing process allows access to more flavour from the same amount of coffee.

Coffee is among the most valuable traded commodities globally, worth $17.9T USD to the US economy in 2015 alone. This discovery could have big implications for the coffee industry and might even allow domestic coffee connoisseurs to brew tastier beverages.

The team studied the effect of grinding beans at different temperatures, from room temperature to -196°C, and discovered that the colder the beans the finer and more uniform the particles were from the grind.

That's important, because small uniform coffee grinds allow for better extraction of the flavour compounds - allowing you to brew more coffee and get more flavour.

Dr Christopher Hendon, a chemistry PhD student at the University of Bath at the time of the study, now working at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, said: "What you're looking for is a grind that has the smallest difference between the smallest and largest particle. If you have small grinds you can push flavour extraction upwards. We found that chilling the beans tightens up this process and can give higher extractions with less variance in the flavour - so you would have to brew it for less time, or could get more coffee from the same beans.

"It will alter the taste, because subtle changes in particle size distributions make a huge difference in rate of extraction. I wouldn't be surprised if people struggled to achieve balanced extractions.

"It could have a major impact for the industry. People are trying to produce a very high quality drink with really quite powerful tools and are willing to try new things."

The study, highlighted in Nature, is published in Scientific Reports.

Maxwell Colonna-Dashwood, co-owner of Colonna & Smalls, said: "Grinding coffee may seem quite straightforward - break coffee up into a lot of tiny bits so you can dissolve it in water. But like the whole world of coffee the subtleties of the process have a huge impact on the flavour and quality of the cup of coffee. The ability to understand grinding more comprehensively has the dual impact of allowing us to make better tasting coffee and to be more efficient in the way we do that.

"The research suggests that temperature of bean needs to be more constant to help us achieve consistent grinds. It suggests that cooler temperatures will allow us to maximise surface area and utilise more of the coffee. All of this will impact on how we prepare coffee in the industry, I bet we will see the impact of this paper in coffee competitions around the globe, but also in the research and development of new grinding technology for the market place."


Chill coffee beans for a more flavorsome brew, say scientists

Maxwell Colonna-Dashwood (L) and Dr Christopher Hendon (R) at the Colonna & Smalls coffee shop in Bath. Credit: University of Bath

In the lead up to the World Barista Championships, University of Bath scientists say brewing more flavoursome coffee could be as simple as chilling the beans before grinding.

A team from the University working with renowned Bath coffee shop Colonna & Smalls found that chilling roasted beans before grinding resulted in narrower distribution of small particles, which during the brewing process allows access to more flavour from the same amount of coffee.

Coffee is among the most valuable traded commodities globally, worth $17.9T USD to the US economy in 2015 alone. This discovery could have big implications for the coffee industry and might even allow domestic coffee connoisseurs to brew tastier beverages.

The team studied the effect of grinding beans at different temperatures, from room temperature to -196°C, and discovered that the colder the beans the finer and more uniform the particles were from the grind.

That's important, because small uniform coffee grinds allow for better extraction of the flavour compounds - allowing you to brew more coffee and get more flavour.

Dr Christopher Hendon, a chemistry PhD student at the University of Bath at the time of the study, now working at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, said: "What you're looking for is a grind that has the smallest difference between the smallest and largest particle. If you have small grinds you can push flavour extraction upwards. We found that chilling the beans tightens up this process and can give higher extractions with less variance in the flavour - so you would have to brew it for less time, or could get more coffee from the same beans.

"It will alter the taste, because subtle changes in particle size distributions make a huge difference in rate of extraction. I wouldn't be surprised if people struggled to achieve balanced extractions.

"It could have a major impact for the industry. People are trying to produce a very high quality drink with really quite powerful tools and are willing to try new things."

The study, highlighted in Nature, is published in Scientific Reports.

Maxwell Colonna-Dashwood, co-owner of Colonna & Smalls, said: "Grinding coffee may seem quite straightforward - break coffee up into a lot of tiny bits so you can dissolve it in water. But like the whole world of coffee the subtleties of the process have a huge impact on the flavour and quality of the cup of coffee. The ability to understand grinding more comprehensively has the dual impact of allowing us to make better tasting coffee and to be more efficient in the way we do that.

"The research suggests that temperature of bean needs to be more constant to help us achieve consistent grinds. It suggests that cooler temperatures will allow us to maximise surface area and utilise more of the coffee. All of this will impact on how we prepare coffee in the industry, I bet we will see the impact of this paper in coffee competitions around the globe, but also in the research and development of new grinding technology for the market place."


Chill coffee beans for a more flavorsome brew, say scientists

Maxwell Colonna-Dashwood (L) and Dr Christopher Hendon (R) at the Colonna & Smalls coffee shop in Bath. Credit: University of Bath

In the lead up to the World Barista Championships, University of Bath scientists say brewing more flavoursome coffee could be as simple as chilling the beans before grinding.

A team from the University working with renowned Bath coffee shop Colonna & Smalls found that chilling roasted beans before grinding resulted in narrower distribution of small particles, which during the brewing process allows access to more flavour from the same amount of coffee.

Coffee is among the most valuable traded commodities globally, worth $17.9T USD to the US economy in 2015 alone. This discovery could have big implications for the coffee industry and might even allow domestic coffee connoisseurs to brew tastier beverages.

The team studied the effect of grinding beans at different temperatures, from room temperature to -196°C, and discovered that the colder the beans the finer and more uniform the particles were from the grind.

That's important, because small uniform coffee grinds allow for better extraction of the flavour compounds - allowing you to brew more coffee and get more flavour.

Dr Christopher Hendon, a chemistry PhD student at the University of Bath at the time of the study, now working at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, said: "What you're looking for is a grind that has the smallest difference between the smallest and largest particle. If you have small grinds you can push flavour extraction upwards. We found that chilling the beans tightens up this process and can give higher extractions with less variance in the flavour - so you would have to brew it for less time, or could get more coffee from the same beans.

"It will alter the taste, because subtle changes in particle size distributions make a huge difference in rate of extraction. I wouldn't be surprised if people struggled to achieve balanced extractions.

"It could have a major impact for the industry. People are trying to produce a very high quality drink with really quite powerful tools and are willing to try new things."

The study, highlighted in Nature, is published in Scientific Reports.

Maxwell Colonna-Dashwood, co-owner of Colonna & Smalls, said: "Grinding coffee may seem quite straightforward - break coffee up into a lot of tiny bits so you can dissolve it in water. But like the whole world of coffee the subtleties of the process have a huge impact on the flavour and quality of the cup of coffee. The ability to understand grinding more comprehensively has the dual impact of allowing us to make better tasting coffee and to be more efficient in the way we do that.

"The research suggests that temperature of bean needs to be more constant to help us achieve consistent grinds. It suggests that cooler temperatures will allow us to maximise surface area and utilise more of the coffee. All of this will impact on how we prepare coffee in the industry, I bet we will see the impact of this paper in coffee competitions around the globe, but also in the research and development of new grinding technology for the market place."


Chill coffee beans for a more flavorsome brew, say scientists

Maxwell Colonna-Dashwood (L) and Dr Christopher Hendon (R) at the Colonna & Smalls coffee shop in Bath. Credit: University of Bath

In the lead up to the World Barista Championships, University of Bath scientists say brewing more flavoursome coffee could be as simple as chilling the beans before grinding.

A team from the University working with renowned Bath coffee shop Colonna & Smalls found that chilling roasted beans before grinding resulted in narrower distribution of small particles, which during the brewing process allows access to more flavour from the same amount of coffee.

Coffee is among the most valuable traded commodities globally, worth $17.9T USD to the US economy in 2015 alone. This discovery could have big implications for the coffee industry and might even allow domestic coffee connoisseurs to brew tastier beverages.

The team studied the effect of grinding beans at different temperatures, from room temperature to -196°C, and discovered that the colder the beans the finer and more uniform the particles were from the grind.

That's important, because small uniform coffee grinds allow for better extraction of the flavour compounds - allowing you to brew more coffee and get more flavour.

Dr Christopher Hendon, a chemistry PhD student at the University of Bath at the time of the study, now working at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, said: "What you're looking for is a grind that has the smallest difference between the smallest and largest particle. If you have small grinds you can push flavour extraction upwards. We found that chilling the beans tightens up this process and can give higher extractions with less variance in the flavour - so you would have to brew it for less time, or could get more coffee from the same beans.

"It will alter the taste, because subtle changes in particle size distributions make a huge difference in rate of extraction. I wouldn't be surprised if people struggled to achieve balanced extractions.

"It could have a major impact for the industry. People are trying to produce a very high quality drink with really quite powerful tools and are willing to try new things."

The study, highlighted in Nature, is published in Scientific Reports.

Maxwell Colonna-Dashwood, co-owner of Colonna & Smalls, said: "Grinding coffee may seem quite straightforward - break coffee up into a lot of tiny bits so you can dissolve it in water. But like the whole world of coffee the subtleties of the process have a huge impact on the flavour and quality of the cup of coffee. The ability to understand grinding more comprehensively has the dual impact of allowing us to make better tasting coffee and to be more efficient in the way we do that.

"The research suggests that temperature of bean needs to be more constant to help us achieve consistent grinds. It suggests that cooler temperatures will allow us to maximise surface area and utilise more of the coffee. All of this will impact on how we prepare coffee in the industry, I bet we will see the impact of this paper in coffee competitions around the globe, but also in the research and development of new grinding technology for the market place."


Chill coffee beans for a more flavorsome brew, say scientists

Maxwell Colonna-Dashwood (L) and Dr Christopher Hendon (R) at the Colonna & Smalls coffee shop in Bath. Credit: University of Bath

In the lead up to the World Barista Championships, University of Bath scientists say brewing more flavoursome coffee could be as simple as chilling the beans before grinding.

A team from the University working with renowned Bath coffee shop Colonna & Smalls found that chilling roasted beans before grinding resulted in narrower distribution of small particles, which during the brewing process allows access to more flavour from the same amount of coffee.

Coffee is among the most valuable traded commodities globally, worth $17.9T USD to the US economy in 2015 alone. This discovery could have big implications for the coffee industry and might even allow domestic coffee connoisseurs to brew tastier beverages.

The team studied the effect of grinding beans at different temperatures, from room temperature to -196°C, and discovered that the colder the beans the finer and more uniform the particles were from the grind.

That's important, because small uniform coffee grinds allow for better extraction of the flavour compounds - allowing you to brew more coffee and get more flavour.

Dr Christopher Hendon, a chemistry PhD student at the University of Bath at the time of the study, now working at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, said: "What you're looking for is a grind that has the smallest difference between the smallest and largest particle. If you have small grinds you can push flavour extraction upwards. We found that chilling the beans tightens up this process and can give higher extractions with less variance in the flavour - so you would have to brew it for less time, or could get more coffee from the same beans.

"It will alter the taste, because subtle changes in particle size distributions make a huge difference in rate of extraction. I wouldn't be surprised if people struggled to achieve balanced extractions.

"It could have a major impact for the industry. People are trying to produce a very high quality drink with really quite powerful tools and are willing to try new things."

The study, highlighted in Nature, is published in Scientific Reports.

Maxwell Colonna-Dashwood, co-owner of Colonna & Smalls, said: "Grinding coffee may seem quite straightforward - break coffee up into a lot of tiny bits so you can dissolve it in water. But like the whole world of coffee the subtleties of the process have a huge impact on the flavour and quality of the cup of coffee. The ability to understand grinding more comprehensively has the dual impact of allowing us to make better tasting coffee and to be more efficient in the way we do that.

"The research suggests that temperature of bean needs to be more constant to help us achieve consistent grinds. It suggests that cooler temperatures will allow us to maximise surface area and utilise more of the coffee. All of this will impact on how we prepare coffee in the industry, I bet we will see the impact of this paper in coffee competitions around the globe, but also in the research and development of new grinding technology for the market place."


Chill coffee beans for a more flavorsome brew, say scientists

Maxwell Colonna-Dashwood (L) and Dr Christopher Hendon (R) at the Colonna & Smalls coffee shop in Bath. Credit: University of Bath

In the lead up to the World Barista Championships, University of Bath scientists say brewing more flavoursome coffee could be as simple as chilling the beans before grinding.

A team from the University working with renowned Bath coffee shop Colonna & Smalls found that chilling roasted beans before grinding resulted in narrower distribution of small particles, which during the brewing process allows access to more flavour from the same amount of coffee.

Coffee is among the most valuable traded commodities globally, worth $17.9T USD to the US economy in 2015 alone. This discovery could have big implications for the coffee industry and might even allow domestic coffee connoisseurs to brew tastier beverages.

The team studied the effect of grinding beans at different temperatures, from room temperature to -196°C, and discovered that the colder the beans the finer and more uniform the particles were from the grind.

That's important, because small uniform coffee grinds allow for better extraction of the flavour compounds - allowing you to brew more coffee and get more flavour.

Dr Christopher Hendon, a chemistry PhD student at the University of Bath at the time of the study, now working at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, said: "What you're looking for is a grind that has the smallest difference between the smallest and largest particle. If you have small grinds you can push flavour extraction upwards. We found that chilling the beans tightens up this process and can give higher extractions with less variance in the flavour - so you would have to brew it for less time, or could get more coffee from the same beans.

"It will alter the taste, because subtle changes in particle size distributions make a huge difference in rate of extraction. I wouldn't be surprised if people struggled to achieve balanced extractions.

"It could have a major impact for the industry. People are trying to produce a very high quality drink with really quite powerful tools and are willing to try new things."

The study, highlighted in Nature, is published in Scientific Reports.

Maxwell Colonna-Dashwood, co-owner of Colonna & Smalls, said: "Grinding coffee may seem quite straightforward - break coffee up into a lot of tiny bits so you can dissolve it in water. But like the whole world of coffee the subtleties of the process have a huge impact on the flavour and quality of the cup of coffee. The ability to understand grinding more comprehensively has the dual impact of allowing us to make better tasting coffee and to be more efficient in the way we do that.

"The research suggests that temperature of bean needs to be more constant to help us achieve consistent grinds. It suggests that cooler temperatures will allow us to maximise surface area and utilise more of the coffee. All of this will impact on how we prepare coffee in the industry, I bet we will see the impact of this paper in coffee competitions around the globe, but also in the research and development of new grinding technology for the market place."


Chill coffee beans for a more flavorsome brew, say scientists

Maxwell Colonna-Dashwood (L) and Dr Christopher Hendon (R) at the Colonna & Smalls coffee shop in Bath. Credit: University of Bath

In the lead up to the World Barista Championships, University of Bath scientists say brewing more flavoursome coffee could be as simple as chilling the beans before grinding.

A team from the University working with renowned Bath coffee shop Colonna & Smalls found that chilling roasted beans before grinding resulted in narrower distribution of small particles, which during the brewing process allows access to more flavour from the same amount of coffee.

Coffee is among the most valuable traded commodities globally, worth $17.9T USD to the US economy in 2015 alone. This discovery could have big implications for the coffee industry and might even allow domestic coffee connoisseurs to brew tastier beverages.

The team studied the effect of grinding beans at different temperatures, from room temperature to -196°C, and discovered that the colder the beans the finer and more uniform the particles were from the grind.

That's important, because small uniform coffee grinds allow for better extraction of the flavour compounds - allowing you to brew more coffee and get more flavour.

Dr Christopher Hendon, a chemistry PhD student at the University of Bath at the time of the study, now working at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, said: "What you're looking for is a grind that has the smallest difference between the smallest and largest particle. If you have small grinds you can push flavour extraction upwards. We found that chilling the beans tightens up this process and can give higher extractions with less variance in the flavour - so you would have to brew it for less time, or could get more coffee from the same beans.

"It will alter the taste, because subtle changes in particle size distributions make a huge difference in rate of extraction. I wouldn't be surprised if people struggled to achieve balanced extractions.

"It could have a major impact for the industry. People are trying to produce a very high quality drink with really quite powerful tools and are willing to try new things."

The study, highlighted in Nature, is published in Scientific Reports.

Maxwell Colonna-Dashwood, co-owner of Colonna & Smalls, said: "Grinding coffee may seem quite straightforward - break coffee up into a lot of tiny bits so you can dissolve it in water. But like the whole world of coffee the subtleties of the process have a huge impact on the flavour and quality of the cup of coffee. The ability to understand grinding more comprehensively has the dual impact of allowing us to make better tasting coffee and to be more efficient in the way we do that.

"The research suggests that temperature of bean needs to be more constant to help us achieve consistent grinds. It suggests that cooler temperatures will allow us to maximise surface area and utilise more of the coffee. All of this will impact on how we prepare coffee in the industry, I bet we will see the impact of this paper in coffee competitions around the globe, but also in the research and development of new grinding technology for the market place."